In this course, we explore the impact of war on the health and well-being of populations. Throughout, we distinguish direct effects of violence on physical and mental trauma, injuries, and death, from indirect effects that disrupt the economic and social systems through which healthcare is delivered. Our main emphasis is on indirect effects since these have more significant and long-lasting effects. In the short-term, both combatants and civilians are at risk of morbidity and mortality associated with short-term loss of food, clean water, shelter, social support, or healthcare infrastructure. More long term, societies at war both lose important infrastructure (schools, institutions, systems), and fail to make investments in future infrastructure because of the diversion of resources for weaponry and war. Likewise, many individuals experience other physical and psychological injuries associated with trauma and conflict induced ecological damage. Conflict-associated structural violence, or the systematic ways in which social structures harm or disadvantage individuals, also affects human health by creating institutional barriers to achieving maximal health status.